Windows Networks Identity Management

Active Directory Domain Controller – Server 2008 r2, Server 2012 r2, Server 2016

Windows -> Start -> Administrative Tools -> Active Directory Users and Computers

All computers on the local network that have been joined to the local domain use the Active Directory User library. Instead of setting up user accounts on each computer, a central database is used to store logon names and passwords. (Generally) Kerberos is used to encrypt and exchange with handshake user logon name and password information. (Windows Professional required for workstations)


Install the jumpcloud client on all computers managed by the Jumpcloud database. (Generally) TLS1.1 is used for logon name and password information. First 10 users are free, then $7.50 per user per month.

15 users – 57.512*.75 = $ 1.875 per user per month paid annual

25 users – 157.512*.75 = $ 3.375 per user per month paid annual

50 users – $4.50 per user per month paid annual ($ 2,700 annual)

Notpetya goldeneye windows versions vulnerable

Ransomware also known as Wannacry is attacking again, but Windows 7 and Windows 10 operating systems with March and April updates fully applied appear to be immune. The computers being hacked are old versions of Windows 10, 8, 7 and XP that have not had security updates installed. XP is especially vulnerable.

Symantec, McAffee and any other virus protection provider are not required to tell you that you do not need their products to protect against these infections, and in fact, you probably should have a virus program.

If you are not encrypted, but have an outdated computer, consider using, then applying updates, then installing Norton anti-virus.

For more sophisticated users, use Microsoft Defender or Security Center, plus Malware Bytes, as well as an occasional scan with fixmestick.

If you are not encrypted but cannot update the operating system, back up your data and either buy a new computer or reformat the hard drive. If fixmestick cannot get the virus out of the computer, or the Windows Update program just will not run, the cost of remediation probably exceeds the cost of a new computer.

Wanncry struck about two months ago. The newest Petya is a very refined improvement of the virus. EternalBlue was first formalized by the US NSA for spying purposes. But if they had not formalized the code, someone else would have done the same. North Korea is known to have produced a variant that was less sophisticated.

The initial infection of NotPetya comes from an email phishing scheme, sometimes in a password protected Microsoft Word document. Then, using the EternalBlue exploit it can worm its way within private networks of vulnerable networks.

Another NSA project called EternalRomance may have code in NotPetya. NotPetya has capabilities that allow it to steal administrator passwords and use them to further replicate. However, using Microsoft password facilities best practices would appear to make this a less likely threat.

Novell Netware

The system administrator can determine that a program or file is shared or unshared. If a file not shareable different users archive viewable mode only reading but unable writable while another user in use mode reading or writing.

NetWare requires access to network directories through specific network drives. Network drives to directories on the network and not physical disk drives. Each workstation can be assigned 21 logical drive letters (F through Z). This means that DOS uses the default letters A to E.

Units NetWare search allow operating system locate files programs different directories directory predefined corresponding. Placing used programs universally directories public access then map them one unit search the fileserver locates programs requested even if not found current directory whence becomes application. Novell NetWare provides the most important safety systems on the market, and providing security of file servers in four different ways: check procedure, mandated rights, rights in the directory and file attributes. NetWare 4.x NetWare 4.x is a network operating system Novell designed for enterprise computing. It can handle up to 1000 users on a single server. It is based on 32-bit architecture ranging from 386 to Pentium processors. This operating system is similar to operating system version 3.12, although it has significant improvements.

The main feature is the 4.x Directory Services (NetWare Directory Sercices NDS). NDS is a comprehensive business service that links to the file servers to network resources such as printers, in an object-oriented hierarchical directory. It is a globally distributed database that provides a single point of registration and is built to facilitate the partitioning and replication of all servers. Designed for large networks, NetWare 4.x allows a network administrator to manage dozens of file servers from a single console. It also offers enhanced remote communications. The software uses the packet’s protocol interpreter and large burst of packets, designed to allow large packets to be transmitted and decrease the number of examinations necessary in the shipment, to ensure that transmission is received accurately. This version increased considerably security.

A network administrator can restrict the use of various network resources to authorized users. These rights define privileges of files such as reading, writing and erasing. The network administrator can also define the actions allowed for a user or program. Another important safety feature implemented in version 4.x is packet authentication to prevent counterfeiting intruder captures packets and identification of a user session to obtain access privileges. NetWare 5.0 An important characteristic provides Novell NetWare are Services Directories (NDS). Novell has made several improvements to the NDS in NetWare version 5. One such improvement is to enlist individual users with different access rights to the NDS tree. For example, you can assign the right to make or revoke a specific user passwords and deny that person the right to delete or create users and groups.

This tool is very useful to the administrator when working with multiple users.All server applications, including utilities such as Rconsole (remote console), work under TCP / IP. Native support means that you can easily install NetWare 5 IP in a network only with other Windows NT and UNIX servers. To maintain compatibility with previous services based on IPX, NetWare 5 also includes an IPX to IP gateway. The new version of NetWare includes a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that runs directly on the server, something that could not be done in previous versions.

With JVM can start a Telnet session or surf the Web on the server.Although this is a very attractive, if not planning to use it is recommended to uninstall it, since it requires a considerable amount of RAM. Novell, NetWare and future Novell believes the computer industry is now second stage LAN connectivity in which LANs connect to computers midrange mainframe through gates or direct interfaces. In recent years, Novell has planned an architecture that is consistent with a future characterized by increasing connectivity, flow of information between large and small computers, and compatibility among multiple vendors. Novell’s plan, known as Universal Network Architecture is directed toward an architecture that includes any platform.

NetWare Summary

  1. It can run on several different topologies.
  2. NetWare is designed to provide real support network file server.
  3. It can handle up to 1000 users on one server (version 4.x).
  4. The main feature of 4.x are the NetWare Directory Services (NDS).
  5. Netware 5 includes a native version or pure TCP / IP plus requires no IPX.

Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT operating system is truly a very powerful 32-bit, which is available in both client and server.

Novell vs Server NT

Server NT brought forth a big improvement in prioritizing processes or threads in the multi-task environment. Managing multiple threads with control for asynchronous operations as well as synchronous operations across multiple CPU setups which is similar to any synchronous multi threading, was implemented..

Symmetric execution across threads and CPU devices improved performance, and the NTFS file system supported larger file names and storage devices. Early kernel mode partitioning supported DOS and OS/2 processes, and the capability of multiple 16 bit DOS processes. File sharing under Windowsfor Wmultiprocessing allows system and application requirements are distributed evenly among all available processors, making everything run much faster. Windows NT uses the NT File System (NTFS). This file system supports file names up to 256 characters. It also allows tracking of transactions. This means that if the system fails, NT returns the data to the state immediately before the crash. Microsoft designed Windows NT to make it portable. It consists of a kernel or nucleus, as well as various sub-systems. There subsystems available for applications that run programs based on OS / 2 and POSIX. A virtual DOS processor (DSP) running MS-DOS and Windows 16-bit applications. NT networking software includes point to point for NT users can share files with other users and applications running NT or Windows for Workgroups.

Windows NT NT security requires users to enter a password each time you start the operating system, whether or not connected to a servidor.Cada NT once it starts, it requests a password. NT government certification qualify for C-2 for safe environments. Microsoft has stated that in the future will offer enhancements that will increase the security level of NT and make it even more attractive to government agencies. A security feature is the NT User Manager. This program ensures that passwords be subject to company policy. It also allows each NT machine is configured to a number of users, giving each its own privilege level. It is also possible to create groups and give the same privileges to all members of a group. Another key safety feature is the event viewer. This program allows network administrators to view a log of all errors and breaches to the network, including time, date and type of violation, and the place where the event occurred and the name of the user involved. Implementation of NT with other network operating systems Windows NT Server provides integrated file sharing, printer sharing capabilities for workgroup computing and network interface open system, which includes integrated support for IPX / SPX, TCP / IP, NetBEUI and other transport.

NT Server is compatible with existing networks such as VINES, NetWare, UNIX, LAN Manager 2.x and Windows for Workgroups. Windows NT includes application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow manufacturers to network operating systems (NOS) write client software to enable their products to run with it. NT supports Macintosh clients and treats them the same way as users of the network, supporting the AppleTalk File Protocol.Macintosh users can access the server NT Server as if it were an AppleShare server. Windows NT Server 4.0 Integration of the user interface of Windows 95 NT 4.0, provides a consistent view across the desktop and the server, resulting in less training time and a faster development of the new network operating system. Tools such as Task Manager, and Network Monitor simplifies server administration.

The task manager offers extensive application and indications of CPU and graphics memory, which allows administrators to control system behavior.Network Monitor has the ability to monitor network traffic, allowing prevent performance problems with it. The directory service of Windows NT (NTDS) holds up to 25,000 users per domain, and hundreds or thousands per company. No matter how centralized or decentralized business, NTDS directory allows you to install an organization capable of providing a complete management of resources, services and applications. NTDS is a directory service that provides security, reliable architecture, graphical interface for management and open interoperability with Novell NetWare. NT 4.0 includes a diagnostic program that provides information about the drivers and the use of the network, minimizing the possible system errors.

This information is presented in graphical form that can be used from a remote NT system. The performance and scalability of the server have been improved as well as sharing and printing of files and performance of Internet server. Windows NT 4.0 works with systems such as NetWare, UNIX and IBM. It supports more than 5,000 hardware platforms and is compatible for most common network protocols such as TCP / IP, IPX / SPX, NetBEUI, AppleTalk, data link control (Data Link Control DLC), HTTP, network architecture systems (Systems Network Architecture, SNA), PPP and point to point protocol tunneling through (Point to Point Tunneling Protocol, PPTP). NT 4.0 is supported for a variety of client systems as Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows NT Workstation, IBM OS / 2 and Macintosh.
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